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Special to the RJRC

(Left to right) Theirry Gervias, head of research at Ryerson Image Centre, and photojournalist and journalism instructor Peter Bregg Photo: Steph Wechsler

(Left to right) Thierry Gervias, head of research at Ryerson Image Centre, and photojournalist and journalism instructor Peter Bregg. Photo: Steph Wechsler

Digital photography and the capacity to edit pictures quickly and affordably have reopened debate over what editorializing means in images and the nature of photojournalistic neutrality, says award-winning photographer Peter Bregg.

New technologies have expanded the options for manipulating photographs, Bregg said during a panel discussion organized by the Ryerson Journalism Research Centre: “If a photo is heavily enhanced in post production is it the truth as it happened, or is the photographer trying to influence the reader?”

Bregg, winner of the 2014 Canadian Journalism Foundation’s lifetime achievement award and an instructor at Ryerson’s School of Journalism, was joined on the panel by Thierry Gervais, the head of research at the Ryerson Image Centre and curator of Dispatch: War Photographs in Print, 1854-2008. The pair discussed the evolution of war photography, photojournalism trends, neutrality and how the meaning of images can change depending on the audience and where they are displayed.

“If you’re taking a picture where half the picture [is] in sunlight and the other half [is] in shadow, in the days of film, it wasn’t worth printing usually,” Bregg said. “But with RAW [the uncompressed image file from the sensor in a digital camera or scanner], you can go in there and lighten the shadows so it looks proper. You can darken the highlights in the sunshine so it looks okay.”

The ability to alter images has led to new rules governing what can and cannot be changed, he noted. In the World Press Photo contest, for example, “entrants are not permitted to make changes in colour that result in significant changes in hue to the extent that the processed colours diverge from the original colours,” he said. The rules, however, have not put an end to debates about photo manipulation.

Major controversy, for instance, surrounded Swedish photographer Paul Hansen’s 2013 World Press Photo prize for “Gaza Burial.” Hansen’s image, which depicts a procession of grieving uncles carrying their dead nephews through an alleyway after the children were killed in an Israeli airstrike, came under fire for what critics said appeared to be excessive tonal manipulation in post-production.

Forensic experts who studied the photo found that there were, “no additions– pixel for pixel– or subtractions,” Bregg said, noting that Hansen was allowed to keep his prize. “They did find there was a fair amount of post production, meaning the guy went into Photoshop. He changed the colours a bit to make it more dramatic. Made the shadows darker.”

The rules listed on the World Press Photo website say that adjusting colour is considered acceptable so long as it doesn’t excessively divert from the original image. Minor cropping or removing spots from negatives is also permitted, but staging scenes is completely prohibited. While some of these rules are fairly straightforward, others, as Bregg and Gervais suggested, are highly subjective. The World Press Photo’s 2015 entry rules page, for instance, says that “the content of an image must not be altered. Only retouching that conforms to currently accepted standards in the industry is allowed. The jury is the ultimate arbiter of these standards.”

Bregg argued that while “the standards really haven’t changed, the technology has changed dramatically.” He noted that there is a long history of manipulating news images: “People have been doing this for years in that you went into the darkroom, and if the background didn’t suit you, you could make it darker” by exposing an area of a print for longer.

Alternatively, the practice of dodging – what Bregg said photographers once called “the hand of God,” – is an old darkroom technique that involves waving an object, like a hand, between the enlarger lamp and the paper to limit the exposure, effectively lightening the image.

Gervais pointed to even earlier examples of photo manipulation. Engravings, he noted, were used to reproduce photographs in newspapers in the 19th century, and to make what were considered improvements at the time. Early photographs had a very narrow depth of field so the background was often blurry, but wood engravings could be etched with a higher degree of background detail compared to the original photographs.

Since the wood carvings conveyed details the photographic image could not, the engravings were considered a more complete depiction of the truth, Gervais said.

Editorial discretion, he added, is exercised in every aspect of journalism: “We are always talking about photography as a mechanical process and because of that, [we assume it is] more truthful, it’s more credible. And, okay, we can say that, but of course when you write, you emphasize something and not something else. I think that’s exactly what photographers are doing in this time.”

Gervais said meaning can also be changed depending on the camera used and where and how the photograph is displayed. As an example, he pointed to “Taliban” by French photographer Luc Delahaye. Delahaye’s 2001 image of a dead Taliban fighter was produced in two ways – with a common digital single-lens reflex (SLR) camera, and a panoramic camera. The former resulted in a regular-sized image that was published in the press, while the wider-format image from the latter was hung on the walls of a gallery.

The panoramic image, he noted, tells a story the press photos could not. In it, you can see footprints around the body and that the dead man’s shoes are missing. “He’s been robbed,” said Gervais. “That’s war. That’s what they do. They kill people, take their money, take their boots and leave.

“When you look at [the] photo that has been published taken with the SLR, all of that is gone,” he said. “I saw a kind of paradox. For me, you have a big image in which you can see a lot of detail because everything was super-sharp for the art gallery, and you have a cropped image losing a lot of information in the press. What can we say about that?

“I would have thought that the more information you put the better it is in the press,” he said.

Gervais and Bregg also discussed what makes an image “good.”

To Gervais, “an image is made of lines, it’s made of tones, it’s made of colours.” But most people can’t articulate why they like or dislike an image – it’s the intangible combination of visual elements, style and subject matter that make an image a success or a failure, he said.

Bregg said that instinct factors into the sense that a photograph works. He noted that submissions to the World Press Photo contest have soared in recent years so that these days a picture has to be “different” to get a judge’s attention. And while black and white was once the photographic standard, now it’s considered novel and arty: “What’s old is new and what’s new is old,” he observed.

The panelists agreed that while there have been momentous changes in equipment, access and taste, the core principle of photojournalism – the need to accurately convey what happened – hasn’t changed.

“The technology has changed but the ethics haven’t,” said Bregg. “We’re still supposed to work with the same ethics we did 100 years ago.”

Based on guidelines listed by Word Press Photo, the Canadian Association of Journalists and the National Press Photographer’s Association.

Based on guidelines listed by Word Press Photo, the Canadian Association of Journalists and the National Press Photographer’s Association.

Staff Reporter

March 8, 2016

Robert Osborne, veteran freelancer and Ryerson journalism instructor, said pitching to the right outlet is critical to success in freelancing.

Robert Osborne, veteran freelancer and Ryerson journalism instructor, said pitching to the right outlet is critical to success in freelancing. [Ilina Ghosh]

Freelance journalists must pitch strategically and confidently and be “the raccoon[s] of the journalism world,” veteran freelancer Robert Osborne told students at a recent workshop organized by the Ryerson Journalism Research Centre.

Osborne’s workshop, which focused on selling stories and maximizing the return on work, took students through the freelance process, drawing on lessons he learned over his 14 years as a freelance journalist and producer.  Building a diverse set of skills and performing under a diverse set of conditions is critical to freelance success, he said.

“You’ve got to be the raccoon of the journalism world, where you can eat anything, go anywhere, do anything…to thrive.”  

Osborne, who is also an instructor at Ryerson’s School of Journalism, emphasized the need to find a fitting client for a pitch. Be a “heat-seeking missile” when targeting news outlets, he said.

“You can have the best story idea in the world but if you take it to the wrong place, you are going to get a lot of no’s.”

Pitching to the correct outlet is all about research, Osborne said.

“You’d be surprised at how many people will pitch perfectly good ideas to the wrong venue…So the first thing you have to do is read the magazine, watch the darn show, research their webpage, really take some time to think what kind of product are they looking for.”

A good pitch also involves a story with a clear focus, Osborne told students: “If you can’t explain the story in one line, you may not know what the hell your story is about.”

The next step is to expand the one line into what Osborne calls a “one page.”

“[A one page] is going to hit all the major bullet points [without being] a mini version of the story. It’s taking all of the salient issues and facts that are going to be involved in your story and putting them together as a sales pitch.”

When pitching to a broadcaster, a “sizzle reel” or pitch video is also necessary, Osborne said, and means freelance journalists must develop rudimentary shooting and editing skills.

“You may be never be a gifted cinematographer, you may never be a gifted editor, but you have to got to know how to string together something for a minute and 30. As well as a one page, every broadcaster from VICE to CBC to Green Ant Productions is going to be looking for a sizzle reel.”

While freelancing does involve a certain amount of working for free, Osborne also focused on how to “maximize your sweat equity.” Freelancers need to pitch the same idea in a variety of mediums and to a variety of outlets, Osborne said. Once an idea is picked up by a news organization, however, he advised against selling the same piece to a direct competitor.

Nick Dunne, a second-year journalism student, said the advice on pitching to multiple organizations and different mediums was especially interesting.

“[At this stage in school,] we’ve done a lot of focus on print and writing, so it was really interesting to see where you can go with [your work,] the different mediums you can bring it to, the opportunities that lie beyond print and more conventional means.”

Osborne said persistence is also an important part of life as a freelancer because unreturned phone calls and unanswered emails are to be expected.

“You have to have a thick skin. You have to keep going at it… in a persistent and polite way. You have to keep reminding them you’re still out there, find out if there’s an update in a story, that’s a reason to send them [another email.]”

While freelancing involves a lot of rejection, Osborne urged students to “have confidence in your good idea.”

“If you have an idea that you really feel strongly about, don’t let it collapse because the first place you took it says ‘We’re not interested.’ If that’s going to shatter you… then you’re in the wrong business. You’ve got to keep pushing that idea; if one person doesn’t like it, push it to another… until you get a hit,” he said.

Osborne ended the presentation with what to do “when you do get a nibble.” Be professional and willing to word hard, he said.

“If you’re obnoxious, if you’re difficult to work with, you will not get a second chance at any of these places. It is critical that when you do get a hook in, even the smallest of jobs with somebody, that you really act like a professional. Whatever they need done, you get it done.”


Special to the Ryerson Journalism Research Centre

February 29, 2016

(Left to right) Ivor Shapiro, Lee-Ann Goodman and Jim Turk Photo by: Robert Liwanag

(Left to right) Ivor Shapiro, Lee-Ann Goodman and Jim Turk Photo by: Robert Liwanag

Neutrality in journalism limits the civil liberties of reporters and should be abandoned, said the director of Ryerson University’s Centre for Free Expression during a recent panel discussion.

Citing CNN’s two-week suspension of global affairs correspondent Elise Labott over a tweet last November, James Turk said neutrality fails to distinguish an institution’s business interests from the journalist’s public obligations. Labott’s tweet—“Statue of Liberty bows head in anguish”—was posted in response to a U.S. House of Representatives bill halting the admission of Syrian refugees. “

(Neutrality) is based on a myth that it’s possible to be disinterested, neutral and dispassionate with regard to the issues that are at the centre of one’s work,” said Turk. “Or, alternately, it recognizes that this myth is not true, but demands one act as if it were.”

Turk made his comments during a Feb. 8 panel at the Ryerson School of Journalism. The panel also included Lee-Anne Goodman, senior editor of business and Ontario at The Canadian Press, and Ivor Shapiro, chair of Ryerson’s journalism program. Bernie Lucht, former executive producer of CBC Radio’s “Ideas,” moderated the discussion.

“Large media organizations are all over the place when you add together their editorial positions and the various columnists they have,” said Turk. “To pretend that journalists, by expressing their views, are going to compromise the brand of the organization when it’s a large organization with many employees and different views is, I think, a mistake.”

Shapiro and Goodman agreed with Turk that a journalist should be judged exclusively on the professional quality of his or her work. However, Shapiro noted that a news organization should have the right to maintain its credibility and hold employees to codes of conduct.

“If I’m a beat reporter and I’m running a website covering crime in Toronto, I’m free to express my opinion that every cop in Toronto is a racist meathead or every victim of crime in Toronto is a whiner,” said Shapiro. “Is it wise for me to express that opinion? Not really.”

Goodman said neutrality should not be abandoned by journalists, citing the ongoing trial of Jian Ghomeshi as an example—Goodman said The Canadian Press’s reporter has been “meticulous about including both sides.”

“Court proceedings can be a particularly dangerous place for a journalist’s bias to be real,” she said. “Those are the sort of things that could cause mistrials.”

She did note, however, that news organizations like CNN are often paranoid about social media backlash.

“Even-handed, cool and neutral coverage is what journalists should strive for,” said Goodman. “A tweet suggesting Rob Ford is a buffoon is one thing, but you couldn’t then write a story about Rob Ford being a buffoon — a snarky tweet has nothing to do with journalism as far as I’m concerned.”

This article originally appeared on J-Source. Republished with permission. 


Special to the RJRC

February 26, 2016

Farrah Khan, coordinator of Ryerson's Sexual Violence Support and Education Office speaks to students on Feb. 10

Farrah Khan, coordinator of the Office of Sexual Violence Support and Education at Ryerson speaks to students on Feb. 10

Jian Ghomeshi’s trial has given Canadians a crash course in the parameters of consent and a comprehensive case study on how the media covers sexual violence.

Farrah Khan, co-ordinator of the Office for Sexual Violence Support and Education at Ryerson University, called the climate around the case “tumultuous,” and urged journalists to be mindful of how they tell stories involving sexual assault.

“When you’re reporting, people are listening,” said Khan, who was invited by the Ryerson Journalism Research Centre to discuss a guide she co-authored for journalists on covering sexual assault.

Khan said the media plays a key role in shaping how survivors are perceived and creating a climate in which they feel able to come forward.

“Survivors are listening, community members are listening, institutions are listening. So how you shape your stories and how you have this conversation has a direct impact on how people feel safer maybe to disclose, to have the conversation, or to talk to their peers.”

The reporting on the former CBC radio host’s trial for sexual assault has generated controversy on the nature of memory. What does a “perfect victim” look and act like? What makes a survivor’s testimony credible? Is forgetting details or seeking to reconcile with an assailant a sign that a survivor is not believable?

Khan told students that although myths about sexual violence persist, journalists can play a role in debunking them.

She pointed to “Use the Right Words: Media Reporting on Sexual Violence in Canada,” a guide developed by femifesto, a feminist collective that works to define and dismantle rape culture. The guide offers practical tools for journalists, and outlines many of the insidious ways rape culture is advanced by media.

One way rape culture manifests is through the “perfect victim” myth, Khan said. The media perpetuates this idea by using language that prescribes how a survivor should behave.

Implied is the notion that for the complainant to attain “perfect victim” status, their recall of facts must be “superhuman.” They must have the foresight to disclose information their own counsel hasn’t mentioned. Their behaviour toward their assailant must not contradict popular assumptions of how we should act toward those who have wronged us.

Journalists should be conscious of the conflicting messages women receive, Khan said, since survivors are frequently given contradictory advice once they come forward. Khan described instances where survivors are prepped for legal proceedings. She said they’re often told, “‘Don’t dress too pretty, but don’t dress dowdy. Don’t look too innocent, but don’t look too slutty.’”

The onus is put on women to avoid violence: “ ‘Don’t go on dates alone, you could get sexually assaulted. Don’t go on dates in groups, because you could get gang raped. Don’t go on dates with your boyfriend because he could sexually assault you, but don’t go on dates with strangers because they’re completely different and they may hurt you too.’

“Women are constantly told to live in fear.”

All of these prescriptions about how women and survivors of assault should behave contribute to a narrative that media reiterate when reporting on the few cases that make it to trial. (Khan said that of 1,000 instances of sexual assault, only 33 are reported to police and only 12 result in charges laid. Of those, six are prosecuted and only three assailants are convicted.)

Keeping quiet, ignoring or even seeking to befriend assailants are commonplace for survivors. Khan noted that globally, one in three girls and one in seven boys experience sexual abuse before they’re 12.

“That means we’ve already been taught from a young age that we have to be okay, mend, repair, forget, appease, befriend our abusers, because usually they’re in our families,” she said.

This shifts accountability onto survivors, and foments the guilt and shame that prevent more people from coming forward.

Many circumstances exclude a survivor from “perfect victim” status. The guide advises against using the term “victim” for these reasons, as it connotes someone “passive, perfectly compliant with police and prosecutor’s demands, not angry, sexually pure (which isn’t just about personal history, it’s about race, class and other identities and what meanings are attached to them.)”

Khan said that the media omits certain narratives of sexual assault and pointed to a study from Saskatchewan that concluded “indigenous women received three and a half times less coverage, their articles were shorter and they were less likely to appear on the front page.”

Even at a time when conversations about sexual violence are gaining traction, assaults of people who don’t neatly fit into “perfect victim” caricatures remain underreported. A 2011 Egale report cited in femifesto’s media guide says that 49 per cent of trans students experience sexual harassment at school, as do 40 per cent of gay and 33 per cent of lesbian students. Based on femifesto’s findings, incidents of sexual violence against those who identify as queer are vastly underreported in media.

The guide also notes that sexual assault involving racialized women or women with disabilities garners little coverage.

Sex workers don’t fit the “perfect victim” model, Khan said. By underreporting incidents and using the word “prostitute” in headlines and articles, the media fails to capture their humanity.

“The majority of people that do sex work are oftentimes from marginalized communities, so what are we saying about marginalized bodies, too?”

Based on social beliefs that bolster rape culture, people assume men do not experience sexual violence, so they don’t fit the “perfect victim” model either. As a result, “when journalists talk about men being sexually assaulted, oftentimes men are faced with what women are faced with in reality and in the world, which is mockery, which is people saying it didn’t happen,” Khan said.

The characterizations of the accused or perpetrators need to be carefully considered as well, Khan said. Often, articles will name the achievements or status of the perpetrator. Descriptors like “star athlete, or well-liked business man or well-liked priest” serve to portray the perpetrator as upstanding, which can make the survivor seem less credible by contrast.

In discussing the Ghomeshi trial, it’s important to remember the women who worked alongside him, Khan said.

A 2013 study from the International Women’s Media Foundation showed that 48 per cent of women journalists globally have experienced sexual harassment at work, and 14 per cent have experienced sexual violence. Considering the nature of the industry – working as a public figure, in closed rooms, in precarious labour positions – it’s important to “think about how you’re going to do self care for yourself when you’re telling stories,” she said.

In all cases, consciously constructing questions and framing incidents within a vast range of sexual assault types is important, Khan said.

“Think about how you’re naming survivors. Think about their strength. Think about how they’re moving forward.”

Some of the best practices listed in the femifesto guide include:

  • Ask your sources how they want their story told and how they want to be identified.
  • Use words that properly convey the violence and lack of consent in sexual assaults.
  • Convey that surviving sexual assault does not wholly define survivors.
  • Challenge your own assumptions about the impact and reality of sexual violence.
  • Don’t treat survivors of sexual assault as if they’re all alike.



Staff Reporter

February 23, 2016

TRC commissioner and former journalist Marie Wilson delivers this year’s 2016 Atkinson lecture on covering aboriginal issues at the Ryerson School of Journalism. [Ilina Ghosh]

Journalists must embrace their role as educators when reporting on indigenous issues and recognize how their work shapes perceptions, Truth and Reconciliation Commissioner Marie Wilson said during this year’s Atkinson lecture at Ryerson’s School of Journalism.

In her address, Wilson drew upon lessons she learned over many years as a CBC journalist and, more recently, the six and a half years she spent as one of three TRC commissioners.

“Recognize the extraordinary value of the space you have been given – your column inches, your air time, your video frames, your Twitter characters, your hashtags,”  she urged the journalism students, professors and professionals in the audience.

“Use your spaces well, as teachers. Despite all the new and emerging technologies, despite all the fracturing of journalistic audiences, you are still teaching in some of the biggest classrooms in the world. And the people you are serving are still learning, one person at a time.”

The TRC investigated Canadian residential schools, which for more than a century, forcibly removed generations of aboriginal children from their communities. Established as part of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, the TRC’s mandate was also to educate the public about the residential school system and help its survivors heal.

The TRC heard from more than 6,750 witnesses and issued 94 calls to action, including three directly related to media and journalists.  It called upon the federal government to restore and increase funding to the CBC/Radio-Canada so that it can reflect the diverse cultures, languages and perspectives of Aboriginal Peoples; it called upon the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network to support reconciliation; and it called upon Canadian journalism programs and media schools to make it mandatory for students to learn about aboriginal history.

Wilson outlined a list of best practices for journalists covering indigenous people and issues. She said, for instance, that it is essential for journalists to recognize the significance of the residential schools when reporting on the victims, the survivors, the TRC or its calls to action.

“Recognize the enormity of what happened in those schools and the question that helps people grasp the enormity: ‘what if it was my child? What if it was you?’”  she said.

“Recognize the enormity of the settlement agreement, the largest class action lawsuit in Canadian history. Think of how many things that we report on that are historic, that are precedent setting, and yet [this,] we underplay it, we mostly don’t know it. I am told by legal experts… that it’s actually the largest collective reparation package in the history of the world.”


Wilson says listening patiently and understanding Aboriginal history are important when covering Aboriginal issues. [Ilina Ghosh]

Wilson says listening patiently and understanding aboriginal history are important when covering related issues. [Ilina Ghosh]

Wilson also urged journalists to:

Build trust by learning and respecting the rules and practices of each indigenous community

Wilson drew upon her TRC experience to illustrate what’s involved in building trust: “We held hearings in every region of the country, in all its indigenous diversity. We needed to respect particular protocols of where we were. We needed to know how to acknowledge the place and the elders. We needed to know how to introduce ourselves and by what relationships that were important to the gathering.”

It is also important to explain the process to people and how their words will be used, she added.

“We needed to explain the role of everyone in the room, the part that they would play, how it would work, what it was for, where their words would go… and most importantly, why they should trust [us] with their story.”

Explain the context

Providing background and context for issues is necessary to tell a complete and accurate story, Wilson says.

“Far too often we see, hear and read stories that start in the middle, move around in the middle and end in the middle. Context makes all the difference” when it comes to combatting the many misconceptions that surround issues affecting indigenous people, she said.

“Many journalists in this country still have not grasped [what the Truth and Reconciliation Commission is.] We hear the word commission and we go into automatic pilot, saying ‘Oh I understand commissions, governments make commissions.’”

In fact, she reminded the audience, the TRC was a hard-won victory for “the victims who fought their way through the legal structures of our country and then fought the parties around the negotiating table for an out-of-court agreement to have a truth and reconciliation commission.”

Listen patiently

Wilson said that listening patiently, despite deadlines, is essential to the practice of good journalism.

“I assure you that if you can’t do that, you’ll miss the heart of the story,” she warned.

As a commissioner, she said she worked to create a safe space for victims to tell their stories and urged journalists to do the same: “We had to listen with our hearts and we had to make it safe for people to speak from theirs.

“All the adults and elders who came to speak to us, they were children when the things they told us about happened to them, [but] often they would even switch their verb tense from past to present: ‘I don’t want to be here. I want my mum and dad. I want to go home and I can’t go home. Why can’t they treat us with kindness instead of… [as]cattle,’” she recalled.

Find something good to balance all the darkness

Find positive stories in addition to the painful stories, Wilson said.

“We made a point of always including cultural celebrations and made sure we had lifted [up our moods] by the time we left at the end of the day. [We recognized] those things that had not been destroyed, that were in resurrection, in resurgence, that were being reclaimed and re-celebrated.”

Work with your team and fight for what you know

While it is important to work with others in your newsroom, “fight for what you know and especially what you know to be important,” Wilson told the audience. “Everyone has their gifts and everyone has their expertise and do not let yours be drowned out by someone who has worked in a place longer or who has a higher rank.”

She said this played out at the TRC when commissioners were deciding on the calls to action: “It was not a hard push, but I was the one who fought for those calls related to journalism because I know what I know about journalism… and its power.”

Learn your history

Wilson says journalists reporting on indigenous issues need to understand the past to write about the present.

“Know your history and if you don’t know it and have not been taught it… which is the case sadly for most Canadians in this country – learn it. Remedial learning is not bad learning,” she said.

Journalists need to know about colonial treaties, modern day treaties, and settlement agreements and also familiarize themselves with the TRC report and its calls to action, she said, because “you need to know those things to understand the foundation of Canada.”

Get the facts straight

“At the end of the commission, we still didn’t have some of the basics right in the reporting about the commission,” Wilson said, pointing to an editorial published by the Globe and Mail days after the TRC released its calls to action. While the editorial was supportive of the commission’s report and urged the government to improve the conditions of Canada’s indigenous population, it also suggested then-prime minister Stephen Harper created the TRC.

Yet as Wilson pointed out, “in fact, that is not true, not in the proper context and not in spirit.”

“[The Harper government] should not get to claim the credit of establishing the commission that it and some of the Catholic entities resisted,” Wilson said. “So it’s critically important that you honour that very first rule of journalism, get it right.”

Stay vigilant

“Don’t get tired of the issue just because you’ve told it once,” Wilson said. “Find fresh angles, new perspectives and… unheard voices.”

The media must hold governments accountable when it comes to their promises and look at past stories with a new lens of reconciliation, she added.

“Go outside of your subject matter expertise, beyond your comfort zone… Give everyone a chance to speak, not just the noisy ones who are flapping their arms. Notice the quiet ones in the corners of our country,” Wilson said.

“Tell stories more than once, as many times as it takes for people to begin to understand.”


Wilson’s presentation can be viewed here.