BY JASMINE BALA
Reporters working in Canadian newsrooms should receive diversity training just like police officers and health workers do says Duncan McCue, the newly appointed Rogers Visiting Journalist at the Ryerson School of Journalism (RSJ).
McCue said the training is necessary because journalists who don’t understand indigenous cultures can cause harm while reporting on these communities.
“The reason that police officers get cultural training is because if there’s a cultural misunderstanding in the middle of the street, someone could wind up getting shot. The reason why health workers get diversity training is because if someone is misunderstood … someone could die in an ER room over a cultural misunderstanding,” said McCue.
“But I would suggest that the impact of repeating stereotypes and misrepresentations in the mainstream media about cultural groups — in my case, indigenous groups — is every bit as harmful as some of those dire situations that police and health workers face. So, it’s important that we as journalists have a cultural baseline when it comes to the communities we serve.”
McCue is Anishinaabe, a member of the Chippewas of Georgina Island First Nation in southern Ontario, an adjunct professor at the University of British Columbia (UBC) and the new host of CBC Radio One’s Cross Country Checkup. As a reporter for CBC’s The National, he was part of an award-winning CBC Aboriginal investigation into missing and murdered indigenous women and girls.
In his capacity as the Rogers Visiting Journalist, McCue will work with Ryerson journalism instructors on developing new approaches for reporting on stories involving indigenous communities. He will also assist in the revision of the RSJ’s curriculum.
“[McCue will] have an influence in a number of different ways,” said Janice Neil, the school’s chair. “He brings his experience — not just 17 years as a journalist and not just his experience being an indigenous person in Canada, but putting those together [to teach journalism] with an understanding.”
McCue said that coverage of indigenous communities needs to go beyond stereotypical accounts of poverty and land claims.
“There’s all kinds of diversity within the indigenous community itself and many, many different stories to tell,” he said, “and so to simplify our stories into poverty, road blocks or land claims is to only give one small slice of life.”
Although indigenous issues still aren’t being covered enough, the amount and quality of coverage has improved, he said, noting that news organizations and schools are responding to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission’s (TRC) recommendations.
The TRC, a component of the Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement, investigated the removal of indigenous children from their homes in placement into residential schools in the 19th century. The country’s last residential school closed in 1996.
In the Atkinson lecture she delivered last winter at the RSJ, TRC commissioner Marie Wilson said the commission’s mandates were to inform the public about the residential school system and to help its survivors heal and reconcile with the rest of Canadian society. As part of the process, the TRC issued 94 calls to action, including three that relate to journalism. It called upon the federal government to restore and increase funding to CBC/Radio-Canada so that the public broadcaster can do a better job of reflecting the diverse perspectives of Aboriginal peoples and for the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network to support reconciliation. It also called for Canadian journalism programs and media schools to require students to be educated on indigenous history.
“The Truth and Reconciliation Commission was, in a way, almost like flipping on a switch,” said Neil. “It’s kind of been like a real wake-up call [for journalists and all Canadians].”
Ryerson’s journalism school is responding to the TRC’s call for action with a new online course designed to teach students about indigenous history and how to report accurately on stories involving indigenous communities. Reporting on Indigenous Issues, the online course taught by associate professor Joyce Smith, will be the first of its kind at the RSJ. It will be available for third-year and fourth-year students in January. McCue will be working with Smith to create the course.
“I’m really looking forward to working with Duncan, who teaches a course like this already for UBC,” said Smith. “It’s going to be great having him here to consult and to get a better idea of what has worked for him and what can work for us going forward in the future as well.”
Smith said she wants students who take this course to walk away with a better understanding of indigenous history and more confidence in reporting on these issues.
“As journalists, a big part of our job is making sure that we do our best to inform the public about things that will influence proper policy,” she said. “It’s not just [about] teaching young journalists; it’s teaching the people who will go on to tell the rest of us these important stories.”
The school is also getting input from McCue on a new website that will be a resource for students who are covering indigenous communities.
McCue said he hopes to introduce more hands-on experience with coverage of indigenous issues into the RSJ curriculum.
“My advice [for students] is always just get out and do it. In a classroom setting, it’s a safe environment to make mistakes. Go out, meet indigenous people – many people haven’t – try to find a story, and learn more about the story,” he said. “All of those things will teach you more than I could ever teach you lecturing at you from the front of the classroom. Bring those experiences back and we’ll break them down, talk about them, discuss them, think about ways that we could have approached things better, applaud the great things that we did do, and that is the most valuable thing.”
He said that he is optimistic that reporting on indigenous issues will be better in the future than it has been in the past.
“I know that things are going to change because I’ve worked with journalism students for several years now at UBC and they’re eager,” he said. “[This] generation is going to make a difference in the way that maybe my generation hasn’t and certainly the generation before [mine] didn’t.”
BY JESSICA ROSS
Special to the RJRC
Queer Ugandan filmmaker Kamoga Hassan lives in fear for his life, but says he is determined to keep telling stories from one of the most dangerous countries in the world for people who are part of the lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender and queer (LGBTQ) community.
Hassan spoke with Andrea Houston, a freelance journalist and instructor for the Ryerson School of Journalism’s Queer Media course, following a Sept. 20 screening of his 2014 film Outed: The Painful Reality. The movie is a drama based on the true story of what happened after a Ugandan newspaper printed an article that outed the “top 200 homosexuals” in the country. The article listed photos, names and phone numbers and resulted in the arrest, exile and in some cases murder of many of those who were named.
“There are times when I’m really afraid,” said Hassan of making the film and being a queer man in Uganda. “I can seek asylum if I wanted, but if we all run away from Uganda, no one is there to tell these kinds of stories.”
His feature film recounts the true story of how one of the men identified in the newspaper story was tortured by police and killed by a mob. Hassan said he originally wanted to make a documentary about the man’s death, but the victim’s family refused to participate.
“The media is an extension of the government,” said Hassan. “The government uses the media to assert their laws and ideals.”
He said that in Uganda, homosexuality is considered a choice and that he would not want to be queer if it were a choice that he could make.
“I don’t think Canadians truly understand what it’s like to live in fear everyday. Fear for your life, fear for your friends, your lovers, your family,” Houston told students, faculty and others who attended the event organized by the Ryerson Journalism Research Centre.
Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni signed a bill in 2014 that defined homosexual behaviour as a crime punishable by life in prison. Colloquially known as the “kill the gays bill,” the bill was the subject of international condemnation and was eventually annulled by the country’s Constitutional Court over a technicality. It nonetheless remains illegal to be gay in Uganda. Hassan said members of the LGBTQ community are often exiled by their families and friends, lose their homes and are fired from their jobs.
The government, for instance, moved quickly to halt a recent Ugandan LGBTQ Pride event. Ethics and Integrity Minister Lokodo Simon released a statement that read, “The organizers of the planned Gay Parade on Saturday, Sept. 24, 2016 are advised to stop their activities immediately or otherwise they will be arrested and prosecuted in the courts of law.” He said that the event is against the Ugandan Penal Code, which states that promoting homosexuality is against the law.
Hassan said he had to shoot Outed in secret because he was worried the police would realize they were making a queer film. And when it was released, he could only show the film in secret at queer-friendly venues because it was banned from being shown in public. Any film depicting homosexuality, he said, is considered an attempt at “recruiting” straight men and young people to become gay and is therefore considered a criminal act.
While his film is still banned in his homeland, Hassan has received positive feedback from the international film community. He won the Barbara Gittings International Human Rights Award in 2015 and the Best International Feature Film Award at the Baltimore International Black Film Festival.
The director said that he hopes he’ll be able to show his films in public in Uganda in the future but, for now, he’s “fighting underground.”
Hassan and his business partner, Montreal media artist and curator Karin Hazé, who also attended the RJRC screening, are starting a mentorship program for filmmakers in the 75 countries that have criminalized homosexuality. The program, called 75 Shots, will provide a platform for LGBTQ directors in those countries who want to use their films to speak out against criminalization. Hazé said they hope to start the project this year.
“The inspiration for this mentorship program is to let people tell their own stories in their own words … using film as a weapon,” said Hazé.
Hassan is also raising funds to create the first – and now only – queer film festival in Africa. The Queer Kampala International Film Festival celebrates the diversity of Kampala’s queer community and aims to spread awareness through film, he said.
Hassan said he has been arrested for his films and for his efforts to champion the film festival. Once he returns to Uganda, he said, he could go to jail for 14 years.
He hopes that a Twitter photo of himself marching in this year’s Montreal Pride parade with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau will protect him. Ugandan authorities, he said, may “think that the world is looking at [him] in a certain way.” The photo could also put him in danger, however, if the authorities think that he is returning from Canada with money and foreign political connections to “recruit” straight people into “homosexual lifestyles,” a common conspiracy theory in the country.
Regardless, Hassan says that social media plays an important role in the fight for human rights and even once saved his life. He and about 300 others were arrested for marching in this year’s Ugandan Pride Parade, he said, and held by police in a very small room. They were not allowed to leave, use the washroom or use their cellphones. Many were beaten, stripped of their clothes and sexually violated.
They managed, however, to secretly Tweet what was happening and this sparked international outrage about their situation. Foreign embassies contacted the Ugandan government and managed to get Hassan and the other marchers released.
— Pride Uganda (@Prideuganda2016) August 4, 2016
Min. of ethics & intergrity Lokodo swears that he will mobilize vigilante,hooligans to crush the Pride Parade.He compared us 2 terrorist
— Pride Uganda (@Prideuganda2016) August 5, 2016
Thank you to every one for showing so much love to @Prideuganda2016 – the police raid from last evening won’t break us but make us strong
— Dr. Frank Mugisha (@frankmugisha) August 5, 2016
Dear media, talking about violations does not mean you are promoting homosexuality. You are protecting humanity. #UgPride2016
— Susan Mirembe (@Cell_met) August 8, 2016
“It’s the power of speaking out,” said Hassan. “When we shared this information, people started sharing it with their friends and that’s how we got saved.”
Despite the dangers, Hassan said that he wants to tell such stories so he can “push and change things” in Uganda, rather than have to change himself and the LGBTQ community.
“When we start fighting now, we are actually making it easier for the next generation of people who are going to come [after] us,” said Hassan. “It’s a risky fight, but we cannot die in silence.”
WATCH THE FULL Q&A HERE:
BY MADELEINE BINNING
Young journalists – and even industry veterans – can feel uncomfortable reporting controversial stories on topics like race, gender and LGBT issues. Some may even shy away from reporting on these topics to avoid the social media blowback that could follow.
“If as a journalist you’re feeling comfortable all the time, you’re not doing good journalism,” said Rankin. “You should be able to step outside of your comfort zone.”
The first RJRC event this fall, the panel attracted about 100 journalism students, faculty members and members of the public to the Rogers Communication Centre at Ryerson University. The discussion, featuring Rankin, award-winning author Kamal Al-Solaylee and Angelyn Francis, associate editor for The Huffington Post, focused on how journalists can deal with discomfort while reporting on controversial issues and the importance of covering difficult topics.
The key to covering such stories is taking the time to get to know sources and neighbourhoods, Rankin said.
“People generally are generous and they want to share their stories,” he said. “And there’s nothing that beats getting out into the communities that you are writing about.”
Beginning in 2002, Rankin led a team of Toronto Star reporters in investigating police carding in Toronto. His award-winning coverage showed that random street checks targeted a disproportionate number of black and brown men in the city. Subsequent reporting on the issue led him to the Weston-Mount Dennis neighbourhood in 2012, an area with a significant black population and a heavy police presence. During the panel, Rankin explained that reporting on the carding story from that area of Toronto involved visiting community hubs and acting as a “fly on the wall.”
“If you go into the community, spend time there, gain trust, don’t go in with your cameras blazing. Take time to get to know people – that’s the way that you establish relationships,” he advised.
He said that it can be difficult for reporters to know they’re on the right track when reporting on unfamiliar groups or places and suggested it helps to have a contact inside the community, even if the source won’t be directly quoted in the story.
“Go find a ‘rabbi,’” said Rankin. “It’s someone who knows everything about the thing you’re about to write about. Sit down with them and say, ‘Tell me everything I need to know.’”
These community insiders can also be used to test whether a story is accurate and to follow up on stories later, he said.
“Don’t just leave a story that’s an important story and walk away,” he advised.
Al-Solaylee, a professor at the Ryerson School of Journalism (RSJ), said that he travelled to 10 countries to write his recently published book, Brown: What Being Brown in the World Today Means (to Everyone).
“Being in the world that you wish to write about, that you wish to cover, is, to me, the most valuable thing,” said Al-Solaylee.
He said that one challenge he faced while researching his book was writing about people that he often had “nothing in common” with. Because, as he explained, he was interviewing construction workers, temporary workers and domestic workers from a place of “privilege” as a university professor, it was even more important to him to see their experiences firsthand.
“Let [sources] decide where and when they want to meet and if you’re flexible, that really helps,” he advised, noting that many people were eager to talk to him but also anxious about it. “I meet a lot of people at their comfort zone instead of asking them to come to me.”
Francis, a recent graduate from the RSJ and currently a freelance journalist, stressed that that it is important to tell difficult stories.
“Because of the racial tensions in the United States, Canadians are too quick to write off the fact that racism exists in Canada,” said Francis, who was involved with multiple student groups such as the Racialised Students’ Collective during her time at Ryerson.
“Most of the stories that I write about race pertain to Canada, so [racism] definitely does happen here,” she said. “Just don’t let those stories pass you by and say that, ‘Oh, that’s not necessarily something that’s happening here.’”
She also urged journalists to do their homework and thoroughly research the topics they cover.
“It’s definitely important for us as journalists to learn the skills of interviewing, to learn the skills of how to tell a good story and how to think critically,” said Francis, “but you need to have a little bit of background in what you want to write critically about.”
WATCH THE FULL PANEL HERE: https://ryecast.ryerson.ca/64/Watch/10595.aspx
- Toronto Star reporter Kevin Donovan to visit Ryerson to discuss his investigation into Jian Ghomeshi, new book
- Upcoming panel on how language evolves – and how journalism evolves with it
- Meet the director of “Outed: The Painful Reality”, a film about homophobic media in Uganda
- Join us for our first panel of the year: Getting comfortable with being uncomfortable
- Pulitzer Prize winners among speakers at Ryerson on May 6 and 7 for editorial cartooning convention
- Duncan McCue works with Ryerson J-School on curriculum for covering indigenous issues
- Film exposes role of Ugandan newspapers in persecution of LGBTQ community
- Getting comfortable with being uncomfortable is part of a journalist’s job, say panelists
- Positive mental health stories more often shared online than negative stories, study finds
- Ryerson journalism prof navigates censorship while teaching in China
- Ryerson reporting project helps Aboriginal people tell their stories
- Kamal Al-Solaylee’s new book explores the complexities of having brown skin
- Crowd-sourced map tracks changes to Canada’s local media landscape